Julitta Slendzinska's International Festival of Early Music


The idea behind the Festival


Julitta Sleńdzińska International Festival of Early Music is one of the main points of the Gallery’s annual cultural programme thanks to its high artistic level and audience recognition. According to its statute and mission, the Gallery cultivates not only the heritage of paintings of the Sleńdziński family, but also the artistic passion of its donator Julitta Sleńdzińska

- a musician, harpsichord player and pedagogue. Harpsichord recitals and concerts of historical chamber music have been

a vital part of the Gallery’s activities since its opening in 1992. The first edition of the Festival, which was the fruit of this tradition, took place in June 2009, and was the initiative of Mariusz Kostro, the then director of the Gallery, and Anna Urszula Kucharska,

a harpsichord player who has been cooperating with the Gallery for many years.


From its first edition, the Festival is a pioneering initiative in adopting the principles of Performance Historically Informed

in Bialystok. The concerts are played on historical instruments or their exact copies and are based

on professional knowledge of the musical aesthetics of the period. The main idea behind the event – promotion

of professional performance of early music in Bialystok – draws inspiration from the city’s tradition going back to the illustrious artistic patronage of hetman Jan Klemens Branicki. The festival has thus a function of promoting its host City

as well.



Julitta Sleńdzińska 10th International Festival of Early Music

The language of all, the language of one

Białystok 22 July - 5 August 2018


What do we have in stock, then, for this year’s 10th anniversary Festival? While last year our repertoire cast shades of Fin de siècle in the latest early music interpretation trends, the 2018 Festival is a return to the ideas that shaped its very first editions – the trust in the ethos of early music in its most transparent form. The 10th Festival, The language of all, the language of one is a reference to the founding assumption of the HIP movement: allowing music to be a language – a sophisticated, and yet a highly straightforward system of communicating the fundamental ideas of humanity.


Aula Magna of Branicki Palace, Kilinski Street 1

Lead-in concert Exploring exclusive eclecticism


Performers: Martyna Pastuszka – baroque violin, Adam Pastuszka – baroque violin, Tomasz Pokrzywiński – baroque cello, Anna Urszula Kucharska – harpsichord

Programme: Georg Friedrich HÄNDEL, Johann Sebastian BACH



Aula Magna of Branicki Palace, Kilinski Street 1

Opening concert Sotto voce about Polish inspirations


Performers: Agata Sapiecha – baroque violin, mazanki, music direction; Judyta Tupczyńska – baroque violin, mazanki; Marcin Zalewski – viola da gamba, hurdy-gurdy; Tomasz Dobrzański – recorder, bagpipe; Anna Urszula Kucharska – harpsichord

Programme: Georg Philipp TELEMANN and the artists imrovisations around folk dances and motifs which Telemann himself drew his inspirations from (according to in His Autobiography)



The Slendzinski Gallery, Warynski Street 24a

Harpsichord recital The narrative imagery of Antoine Watteau


Performers: Dorota Zimna – harpsichord, Anna Urszula Kucharska – harpsichord

Programme: Gaspard le ROUX, Antoine FORQUERAY / Jean-Baptiste-Antoine FORQUERAY , François COUPERIN,  Louis Claude DAQUIN, Jean Philippe RAMEAU, Poule; Gaspard le ROUX



The Slendzinski Gallery, Warynski Street 24a

Lecture: Joanna Zaucha, Phd (UKSW Warsaw) The universal principle of language and the "monads of meaning". Leibnizian inspirations in contemporary linguistics



The Slendzinski Gallery, Warynski Street 24a

Vocal recital Dialoguing with the Florentine Camerata


Performers: Rafał Grozdew – tenor, Agnieszka Szwajgier – cornett, recorders, Witold Wilgos – lute, chittarone

Programme: Vincenzo GALILEI , Giulio CACCINI, Pesenti MARTINO, Girolamo FRESCOBALDI, Jacopo PERI, Giovanni Battista FONTANA, Claudio MONTEVERDI



Concert Hall, OiFP, Podlesna Street 2

In the language of psalms and parables


Performers: Profeti della Quinta: Doron Schleifer – countertenor, Roman Melish – countertenor, Lior Leibovici – tenor, Dan Dunkelblum – tenor, Elam Rotem – bass, cembalo and musical direction, Orí Harmelin – chitarrone

and Judyta Tupczyńska, Joanna Gręziak – baroque violin, Justyna Krusz – viola da gamba, Anna Urszula Kucharska – chamber organ, harpsichord

Programme: Salomone ROSSI , Elam ROTEM, Kaddish prayer - Yitgadal veyitkadash


Julitta Sleńdzińska 8th International Festival of Early Music

„Between trivium and quadrivium

Białystok 20-27 August 2016



Aula Magna Pałacu Branickich, ul. Kilińskiego 1, Opening concert. Musica instrumentalis

photos 1

SolistsMartyna Pastuszka – baroque violin (concertmaster), Adam Pastuszka – baroque violin, Anna Urszula Kucharska  harpsichord, musical direction and Marta Wróblewska  soprano, Iestyn Gosheron Morris  – countertenor, Rafał Grozdew  tenor, Przemysław Kummer – bass

and Baroque Festival OrchestraRafael Gabriel Przybyła  baroque oboe, recorder, Marek Nahajowski  baroque recorders, Marian Magiera – baroque trumpet, Dymitr Makarewicz – baroque trumpet, Agnieszka Szwajgier  baroque oboe, Grzegorz Lalek  baroque violin, Małgorzata Małkiewicz  baroque violin, Radosław Koper  viola baroque, Jakub Kościukiewicz  baroque cello, Stanisław Smołka  violone, Maria Wilgos – baroque guitar, Witold Wilgos  teorba, Jarosław Kopeć – percussion instruments

Programme: D. Zipoli (Archivos Chiquitos e Moxos, J. S. Bach, H. Purcell



 Galeria im. Sleńdzińskich, ul. Waryńskiego 24a, Monographic concert / harpsichord recital. Ars contrapuncti

photos 2

Solists: Patrycja Domagalska-Kałuża  harpsichord. Featuring: Festival Vocal Quartet Incognito and Małgorzata Jaworowska

Programme: J. S. Bach  Well-Tempered Clavier, Kunst der Fuge

Lecture: Dr. Anna Ursula Kucharska "The case Komatu Pythagorean - in search of attire wohltemperierte"



Galeria im. Sleńdzińskich, ul. Legionowa 2, Meeting with music and astronomy. Musica Mundana

photos 3

Lecture: Prof. dr. Jarosław Włodarczyk (Institute of the History of Science Polish Academy of Sciences)

"The harmony of the world and the old visions of the cosmos"

Solist: Małgorzata Jaworowska   harpsichord

Programme: J. S. Bach



Galeria im. Sleńdzińskich, ul. Waryńskiego 24a, Meeting with music and philosophy. Ars activa  Ars speculativa

photos 4

Presentation of the movie "The case of Galileo", dir. Fritz Kalteis, prod. Gabriele Wistawel, ORF 2014

Solists: Maria Wilgos  baroque lute, Witold Wilgos  baroque lute

Programme:  V. Galilei, B. Monzino (from the set Fronimo dialogo di Vincentio Galilei, 1568-1569)



Stary Kościół Farny, ul. Kościelna 2, A chamber concert. Ars rhetoric

photos 5

Performers: Julita Mirosławska  soprano, Judyta Tupczyńska – baroque violin, Maria Wilgos – baroque guitar, Witold Wilgos – theorbo, Urszula Anna Kucharska  harpsichord, virginal, musical direction

Programme: T.  Merula, S. Landi, F. Caccini, B. Stozzi, Al. Piccinini, G. A. Pandoli Mealli, B. Marini, G. Frescobaldi



Aula Magna Pałacu Branickich, ul. Kilińskiego 1, The final concert. Musica Humana

photos 6

Performers: Julita Mirosławska – soprano, Marta Wróblewska  soprano

and Dancers court ballet Cracovia DanzaRomana Agnel, Dariusz Brojek, Krzysztof Antkowiak

and PerformersJudyta Tupczyńska  baroque violin, Paweł Książkiewicz – traverso, Christoph Urbanetz – viola da gamba, Jakub Kościukiewicz – baroque cello, Maria Wilgos  baroque guitar, Witold Wilgos  theorbo, Jarosław Kopeć – percussion, Urszula Anna Kucharska  harpsichord, positive, musical direction

Urszula Anna Kucharska  scenario and Romana Agnel  choreography and direction of stage movement

Programme: M. Marais, F. Couperin, L. Couperin, J. H. d`Anglebrt, G. Ph. Telemann



Julitta Sleńdzińska 7th International Festival of Early Music

Wisely fair and beautifully bold”

Under the Honorary Patronage of the President of Bialystok

Bialystok, 23-29th of August 2015



This year’s 7th edition of the Festival will take place between 23 and 29 August 2015. The concerts and other events exploring the common theme of “Wisely fair and beautifully bold” will revolve around the subject of women in the late Renaissance and Baroque culture as creators themselves and inspirations to others. The spirit of these fair and bold artists will be present in music by renowned female composers such as Élisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre, Barbara Strozzi, Francesca Caccini, as well as in works created under the patronage of powerful women of the period or intended for prominent lady musicians and their companions from artistic ensembles such as Ferrara’s Concerto delle donne or the famous girl orchestra from the Venetian Ospedale della Pietà.


Aula Magna of Branicki Palace, ul. Kilińskiego 1, Opening concert „Per Ospedale della Pietà”

photos 1.          photos 2.          photos 3.

Performers, solists

Iestyn Gosheron Morris – countertenor, Martyna Pastuszka – first baroque violin (concertmaster), Leonor de Lera – baroque violin, Teresa Kamińska – baroque cello

and Festival Baroque OrchestraJoanna Gręziak, Justyna Skatulnik, Magdalena Kuźmińska, Kornelia Korecka – baroque violin, Małgorzata Feldgebel, Katarzyna Litwiniuk – baroque viola, Maria Ślipska – baroque cello, Anna Bator – violone, Maria Wilgos – lute, baroque guitar, Witold Wilgos – teorba, Anna Urszula Kucharska – harpsichord, artistic leadrship

Programme: Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (1678-1741) Concerto D minor op. 3 no 11 RV 565 (L`Estro Armonico), Allegro-Adagio e spiccato-Allegro Largo e spiccato Allegro; Air „Rompo i ceppi” (Orlando furioso RV 728); Concerto F major Op. 3 No 7 RV 567, Andante Adagio ( L`Estro Armonico); Concerto in F minor (Winter) Op.8 No.4 RV297 (Il Cimento dell'Armonia e dell'Inventione), Allegro non molto Largo Allegro; Cello Concerto in C minor, RV401, Allegro non molto Adagio Allegro ma non molto; Trio Sonata in C major RV 82, Larghetto-Lento Allegro; Stabat Mater RV 621, Stabat mater dolorosa, Cujus animam gementem, O quam tristis et afflicta, Quis est homo, Quis non posset contristari, Pro peccattis suae gentis, Eia mater, fons amoris, Fac ut ardeat cor meum, Amen


The Slendzinski Gallery, Waryńskiego Street 24a, „In Her Majesty’s service – musical monodrama



Performers: Jerzy Łazewski – actorAnna Urszula Kucharska – harpsichord,compilation of text and music

Text: William SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet (trans. Józef Paszkowski): Act 1-Scene 2, Act2-Scena 1,Act 4-Scene2, Act 4-scene4, Romeo and Juliet (trans. Józef Paszkowski): Act I Scene 5,Act 1-Scene 5 Act 2-Scene 2, Act 2-Scene 3; Sonnet : 130

Music: William BYRD (1540-1623), La Volta, The Bells; Peter PHILIPS(1560-1628), Amarilli di Julio Romano; John DOWLAND (1563-1626)/Jan Pieterszoon SWEELINCK (1562-1621), Lachrimae Pavane; John BULL (1562-1628), Chromatic Pavan and Galliard (Queen Elizabeth), Lord Lumley` Pavan, Walsingham

Lecture: Ph. D. Krystyna Luto – “Sovereigns, spies and speculators – artistic patronage of Queen Elizabeth I”



The Slendzinski Gallery, Waryńskiego Street 24a, “Lady Composers and collectors”– harpsichord recital



Anna Krzysztofik-Buczyńska – harpsichord

Programme: Elisabeth-Claude JACQUET DE LA GUERRE (1665-1729)Premier livre de pièces de clavessin (1687), 

 Suite No. 3 in A minor:  Prélude,  Allemande,  Courante,  Sarabande,  Gigue,  Chaconne; Domenico SCARLATTI (1685-1757)Essercizi per glavicembalo, Sonate in D major K1; Daniel PURCELL (1663-1717) The 2nd Book of the Ladys Entertainment, Toccata in D minore; Orlando GIBBONS (1583-1625) Elizabeth Roger`s Virignal Book (1656/7), Nanns Maske; Elisabeth-Claude JACQUET DE LA GUERRE (1665-1729)Premier livre de pièces de clavessin (1687), Suite No. 5 in D minor, Courante, Courante, double, Sarabande, Gigue; Johann Sebastian BACH(1685-1750) Klavierbüchlein für Anna Magdalena Bach (1725), Partita A Minor BWV 827, Prelude, Allemande, Corrente, Sarabande, Menuet, Gigue

Lecture: Marta Pietruszko “Formality and extravagance – female fashion in 17th century Europe”



Aula Magna of Branicki Palace, ul. Kilińskiego 1, Final concert “Concerto delle Donne”

photos 1.           photos 2.


Performers: Julita Mirosławska – soprano, Henry Orlando Villca Santura – tenor, Karol Kozłowski – tenor, Gewain Glenton – cornett

Cracovia DanzaRomana Agnel, Dariusz Brojek, Alicja Petrus – dance

and Violetta Szopa-Tomczyk – baroque violin, Grzegorz Lalek – baroque violin, Marcin Stefaniuk – baroque viola, Tomasz Frycz – baroque cello, Anna Wiktoria Swoboda – teorba, baroque guitar, Anna Urszula Kucharska – harpsichord, music direction

Anna Urszula Kucharska – scenario and kompilacja sceniczno-muzyczna

Romana Agnel – choreography and stage management

Programme: Claudio MONTEVERDI (1567-1643) Book 8: Madrigali guerrieri et amorosi, Venice 1638), Sinfonia (Il ballo delle ingrate); Luzzsco LUZZASCHI (1545-1607)Madrigali per cantare et sonare, Rome 1601, LaPrimavera; Claudio MONTEVERDI (1567-1643) Scherzi musicali, Venice 1632, Zefiro torna; Claudio MONTEVERDI (1567-1643)Book 8:Madrigaliguerrieri et amorosi, Venice 1638, Ninfa che, scalza il piede; Antonio BERTALI (1605-1669), Ciaccona in C; Francesca CACCINI (1587-1645)Il Primo Libro delle Musiche, Florence 1618, Io mi distruggo, et ardo; Barbara STROZZI (1619-1677)Diporti di Euterpe Op.7, Venice 1659, Lamento: Lagrime mie a che vi trattenete; Francesco ROGNONI TAEGGIO (1550-1626)/Giovanni P. da PALESTRINA (1525-1594)Selva de varii passaggi, Milan, 1620), Pulchra es amica mea; Claudio MONTEVERDI (1567-1643)Book 8: Madrigali guerrieri et amorosi, Venice 1638, Ogni amante è guerrier, Il combattimento di Tancredi et Clorinda



The VIth International Festival of Early Music

From a new world from an old world

24-29th of August 2014





This year’s 6th edition of the Festival will take place between 24th - 29th August 2014.  The cycle of concerts and events

under the common title„From the New World from the old world” refers to the phenomenon of the adaption of a given culture

in an aesthetically remote civilization. Within the stylistic richness of the Baroque period,

a special case of such musical acculturation is the style called Missionary or Jesuit Baroque. An enormous collection

of music created in Jesuit Reductions in the 17th and 18th centuries was preserved in South America.

During the concerts, we will present compositions from 18th century manuscripts discovered in Bolivia by a Polish missionary,

Rev Prof. Piotr Nawrot.

We will witness the very first performance in Poland of an opera recreated from the materials from the Music Archives Chiquitos and Moxos – the opera San Ignacio. The concerts will feature recognized artists from Poland and abroad;

i.a. the Bolivian tenor Henry Orlando Villca Suntura. The special point of this year’s programme is the recital of the eminent Italian gambist Paolo Pandolfo.


From its first edition in 2009, the Festival is the key initiative in popularizing the principles of Historically Informed Performance

in Bialystok. The concerts are performed on historical instruments or their exact copies and are guided by scholarly knowledge about the aesthetics of musical performance in the period when the presented works were composed.


The Festival’s Artistic Director is Anna Urszula Kucharska – a harpsichordist, doctor in musical arts and a specialist in Historically Informed Performance.



Aula Magna Pałacu Branickich, Kilińskiego Street 1, The opening concert “From the New World”

photos 1. Concert


Performers: Julita Mirosławska – soprano; Marta Wróblewska – soprano; Magda Niedbała – mezzosoprano; 

Karol Bartosiński – countertenor; Henry Orlando Villca Suntura – tenor, zampoña flute

Romana Agnel – dance; Dariusz Brojek – dance

Judyta Tupczyńska – baroque violin; Grzegorz Lalek – baroque violin; Dymitry Makarevich – baroque trumpet; 

Tomasz Frycz – baroque cello; Daniel Zorzano – violone; Jarosław Kopeć – percussion instruments; Jerzy Żak – archlute, baroque guitar; Anna Urszula Kucharska – harpsichord

Stage adaptation: Anna Urszula Kucharska

Choreography: Romana Agnel

Programme: Anonim Opera San Ignacio (Archivo Musical de Chiquitos and Archivo Musical de Moxos, ed. Piotr Nawrot, 2012) and A. Falconieri, G.B. Viviani, A. Corelli, H. Villca, J. Żak



The Slendzinski Gallery, Waryńskiego Street 24a, “From Habsburg Spain” – vocal-lute recital

photos 2. Concert


Performers: Magda Niedbała – mezzosoprano; Adam Nowakowski – lute (students of the Academy of Music in Kraków)

Artistic supervision: Jerzy Żak

Programme: L. Milan, L. de Narvaez, A. Mudarra, H. le Bailly, J. Aranes, M.J. de Veana, J. Marin

Lecture: Ph. D. Tomasz Szyszka (SVD) – “From Spain to the New World – Jesuit Reductions in the 17th and 18th centuries”



The Old Church, Kościelna Street 2, Extraordinary viola da gamba recital “Searching for a new sonority”

photos 3. Concert


Paolo Pandolfo - viola da gamba; Anna Urszula Kucharska – harpsichord


Programme: J. Sainte-Colombe, A. Forqueray, M. Marais, P. Pandolfo, A.U. Kucharska, C.F. Abel, J.S. Bach



Amphitheater – Podlasie Opera and Philharmonic, Odeska Street 1, Presentation of the film the Mission (1986), prod. The UK, dir. Roland Joffe



The Old Church, Kościelna Street 2, The final concert “Sounds from Chiquitania”

photos 4. Concert


Performers: Julita Mirosławska – soprano; Henry Orlando Villca Suntura – tenor, zampoña flute

Bożena Bojaryn-Przybyła – soprano; Joanna Motulewicz – alto

Judyta Tupczyńska – baroque violin; Violetta Szopa-Tomczyk – baroque violin; Tomasz Frycz – baroque cello;

Anna Wiktoria Swoboda –theorbo, baroque guitar; Anna Urszula Kucharska – harpsichord, chamber organ


H. Villca and A. Swoboda, D. Zipoli, A. Corelli, R. Ceruti, compositions from Archivo  Musical de  Chiquitos

and Archivo Musical de Moxos (ed. Piotr Nawrot)




The Fifth International Festival of Early Music

“Peace in the age of anxiety”

24-31th of August 2013



A cycle of concerts and lectures under the common title “The Peace in the age of anxiety” evoked the historical dynamism of the 17th and 18th century Europe. We heard masterpieces of European chamber music that reflected both the tensions characterizing the societies and individuals of that time and the searched for an enclave of peace and harmony within the abstract sphere of music.


The concerts featured recognized artists from various parts of Poland, as well as from Great Britain, Mexico and Japan. As usual, the concerts were accompanied by lectures introducing the audience to the historic and aesthetic context of the musical presentation.


The Artistic Director of the Festival’s is Anna Urszula Kucharska – a harpsichordist,

doctor in musical arts, specialist in Performance Historically Informed.




The Opening Concert “Warriors, diplomats and dancers”, Aula Magna of Branicki Palace

photos 1. Concert

“Les goûts réunis” – harpsichord recital, The Sleńdziński Gallery

photos 2. Concert

“In Bach’s house” – harpsichord recital, The Sleńdziński Gallery

photos  3. Concert

“Pax hominibus bonae voluntatis” – chamber music concert, The Old Church

photos  4. Concert

“In the enclave of myths” – vocal recital, The Sleńdziński Gallery

photos  5. Concert



The Fourth International Festival of Early Music

“Concept, Mystery, Uniqueness”

18-25th of August 2012



“Concept, Mystery, Uniqueness”, is the title given to a series of concerts and lectures which we will appreciate during the coming Festival. The title derives from the Baroque music concept: the expression and art of influencing a listener's emotions.

The Bialystok audience will have the opportunity to listen to masterpieces of European music of the 17th and 18th centuries, which perfectly reflect the Baroque aesthetic, played by recognized Polish, British and Czech musicians.
The Festival is Bialystok's pioneering project in historically informed performance. The concerts are played on period instruments or their copies, and performances are based on our knowledge of aesthetics of early music.
As always, lectures on historical and aesthetic context of the Festival's music program

will be provided.


The Festival's artistic director is Anna Urszula Kucharska - a harpsichordist and expert

at historically informed performance.





The Third International Festival of Early Music

“Florence, Venice, Naples – the three Suns of Italian Baroque”

20-27th of August 2011 (under the auspices of Białystok's president)



This year Festival aimed at presenting the richness and stylistic heterogeneity of  Italian 16th, 17th and 18th century music. We could hear vocal-instrumental music written by the composers who originated from the most important three music centers of Italian Baroque: Florence, where Jacopo Peri’s “Euridice” was created - the masterpiece which starts

the  Baroque period(1600), Venice – the center of instrumental music and concerting style,

and Naples whose new dramatic opera style, conservatoires, orchestras and theaters, inspired Europe for almost 100 years.

As every year, Polish and foreign musicians performed, graduates of the most prestigious European early music schools e.g. Schola Cantorum Basilensis, Guildhall School of Music

and Drama, Koninklijk Conservatorium in the Hague, who have impressive experience in playing Baroque and classical instruments.

It is Festival’s declared intention to promote historically informed performance. The concerts are played on period instruments or their copies, and performances are based on our knowledge of aesthetics of early music.
As always, lectures on historical and aesthetic context of the Festival's music program

were provided, as well as different level master courses for music students.

Workshops for music high schools students and music academies students were guided by: Judyta Tupczyńska (Baroque violin), Simone Curley (recorders).






The Second International Festival of Early Music

"Pre-Chopin inspirations music on period keyboard instruments

21-28th of August 2012



Keyboard music dominated the second Festival, in order to celebrate the 200th anniversary of Chopin's birthday. During the six concerts, we could hear solo and chamber music written for the precursors to the grand piano (harpsichord, virginals and pianoforte).

Compositions of 16th, 17th, and 18th century Europe were presented, which had, undoubtedly, a great impact on European keyboard music, and from which Chopin's music evolved.

The harpsichord master course that was organized within the Festival, was prepared for

the students and graduates of music schools. Participants from all over the world turned out

to master their techniques, guided by the best harpsichordists Lilianna Stawarz and Nicholas Parle. The master course ended up with a chamber music concert which was a showcase for the young musicians.

During the Festival, we could also appreciate period dance workshops in which everybody could participate, and learn complicated Baroque dances for five days. The workshops were guided by Magdalena Żmuda – a dancer cooperating with ”Cracovia Danza”.







The First International Festival of Early Music

19-21 st of June 2009



The first Festival was held in June 2009, within another of Bialystok's annual festivals - „Bialystok Days”. It was the crowning achievement of the Gallery's popularization of classical music,

as well as a long-lasting cooperation between the Gallery and Anna Urszula Kucharska,

the harpsichordist, an expert at historically informed performance.

The Festival comprised of three concerts and was a showcase for Polish and foreign musicians, graduates of the most prestigious European early music schools e.g. Schola Cantorum Basilensis, Guildhall School of Music and Drama, Koninklijk Conservatorium

in the Hague, who have  impressive experience in playing Baroque and classical instruments.

The special guest of the Festival was the worldfamous Australian harpsichordist Nicholas Parle, the first prize winner of the prestigious international contest „Musica Antiqua”

in Brugge (1989), a professor of Guildhall School of Music & Drama in London,

and the University of Music and Theatre “Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdi” Leipzig.